Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem services are the direct and indirect benefits that ecosystems provide humans. Agroecosystems, rangelands, and forests provide suites of ecosystem services that support and sustain human livelihoods. These services are typically broken down into four categories:

  • Provisioning services: the material or energy outputs from an ecosystem, including food, forage, fiber, fresh water, and other resources
  • Regulating services: benefits obtained through moderation or control of ecosystem processes, including regulation of local climate, air, or soil quality; carbon sequestration; flood, erosion, or disease control; and pollination
  • Supporting services: services that maintain fundamental ecosystem processes, such as habitat for plants and wildlife, or the maintenance of genetic and biological diversity
  • Cultural services: the non-material benefits that ecosystems provide to human societies and culture, including opportunities for recreation, tourism, aesthetic or artistic appreciation, and spirituality

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forecasts-tool

Using projections of future climate, ForeCASTS produces maps that depict future suitable habitat ranges for North American tree species in the United States and globally. These pre-generated maps are available online and are intended to help scientists, land managers, and policy...

ForeCASTS: Forecasts of Climate Associated Shifts in Tree Species

This is a global network providing access to peer practitioners, tools, information and training focused on nature-based solutions to enhance coastal resilience.

Coastal Resilience

FS WWETAC

The mission of the Center is to generate and integrate knowledge and information to provide credible prediction, early detection, and quantitative assessment of environmental threats in the western United States. The goal of WWETAC is to inform policy and support the management...

Western Wildland Environmental Threat Assessment Center (WWETAC)

The tools presented below represent a portion of the tools available for the climate and agriculture in the Midwest. The tools range from specialized calculators to maps, models and datasets estimating a variety of outputs (e.g., crop production, greenhouse gas flux, and species...

Tools

In the Northwest ranchers, landowners, and land managers are facing the challenges of a changing climate and are altering their management decisions as a result. Warmer winters and springs can result in reduced snowmelt and more rain than snow in the mountains, reducing water...

Northwest Ranching - Adapting to Climate Change

Provide resources and adaptation strategies for land managers that have been vetted by scientists and land managers in other areas.

Adaptation Partners: Climate Change Adaptation Library

Forest landowners and natural resource managers in the Northwest and Alaska are witnessing the effects of a changing climate and are faced with a variety of challenges and opportunities in making management decisions. Climate is a long-term average of atmospheric conditions over...

Northwest Forestry - Adapting to Climate Change

Find demonstration project stories at www.forestadaptation.org/demos

How are land managers adapting to climate change? It can be helpful for natural resource managers to see what others are doing in the real world to respond to the impacts of climate change in land management. Demonstration projects are living examples of how managers have...

Demonstration Projects

An incised stream occurs when a stream cuts its channel into the bed of a valley through degradation (erosion). As a stream cuts its channel the water table drops and the surrounding vegetation changes from wetlands and meadows to dry shrublands. Incised streams are thought to...

Incised Stream Restoration in the Western U.S.

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