Ecosystem Services

Ecosystem services are the direct and indirect benefits that ecosystems provide humans. Agroecosystems, rangelands, and forests provide suites of ecosystem services that support and sustain human livelihoods. These services are typically broken down into four categories:

  • Provisioning services: the material or energy outputs from an ecosystem, including food, forage, fiber, fresh water, and other resources
  • Regulating services: benefits obtained through moderation or control of ecosystem processes, including regulation of local climate, air, or soil quality; carbon sequestration; flood, erosion, or disease control; and pollination
  • Supporting services: services that maintain fundamental ecosystem processes, such as habitat for plants and wildlife, or the maintenance of genetic and biological diversity
  • Cultural services: the non-material benefits that ecosystems provide to human societies and culture, including opportunities for recreation, tourism, aesthetic or artistic appreciation, and spirituality

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Caroline Lake, Wisconsin

Project partners identified a number of potential adaptation actions with the overarching intent to maintain the resilience of the forest to changing conditions. In the northern hardwood forest, actions to maintain and enhance tree species diversity were prescribed to reduce the...

The Nature Conservancy: Caroline Lake Preserve

Sorting seeds to be planted in oak wilt treatment areas

Expansive forests of large maple, oak, and birch trees are prized across the Northwoods for many reasons, including their beauty, their diversity, and their ability to provide valuable wood. Unfortunately, forests pests and disease pose increasingly large threats for these and...

Responding to Oak Wilt on the Menominee Forest

Ecosystem services are the direct and indirect benefits that ecosystems provide humans. Agroecosystems, rangelands, and forests provide suites of ecosystem services that support and sustain human livelihoods. These services are typically broken down into four categories:...

Ecosystem Services

Bioenergy is renewable energy derived from biological sources, to be used for heat, electricity, or vehicle fuel. Biofuel derived from plant materials is among the most rapidly growing renewable energy technologies. Conversion of biomass to liquid fuel is a method utilizing...

Bioenergy in a Changing Climate

Red oak tree leafing out in spring

The visualization tool provides an online map-based interface for USA National Phenology Network data observations collected across the United States. Users can explore recent trends for species seasonal changes or phenophases (e.g., flowering, hatching), as they relate to...

USA National Phenology Network Visualization Tool

Neighborhood trees line a city street

i-Tree consists of several different applications focused on quantifying the benefits of local trees for neighborhoods and communities. Each application has a unique focus, however several calculate the carbon sequestration and/or energy savings benefits of urban trees.

i-Tree

Map of current white oak distribution from Tree Atlas

The Climate Change Atlas can be used to examine the current distribution of tree and bird habitats in the eastern United States, and how these habitat distributions might change in response to different climate scenarios. The Atlas was created using a model called DISTRIB that...

Climate Change Tree Atlas & Bird Atlas

The changing climate presents challenges and opportunities for U.S. agricultural production, forest resources, and rural economies. These threats have significant implications not just for farmers, ranchers, and forest landowners, but for all Americans. Land managers across the...

Growing Seasons in a Changing Climate

Providence Water's Tunk Hill Site

Smart Phone or Tablet? We suggest jumping over here for an improved virtual experience!   In the Northeast, climate trends include more rain and more frequent heavy rain events. In addition, warming temperatures may increase insect growth rates, making the region more hospitable...

Forest Management with Providence Water

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